why does morocco want western sahara

The Polisario made headlines last week when they declared war on Morocco. Because Algeria sees Morocco as a threat and is worried over what the future may hold in store if Morocco succeeds in the Western Sahara. The weapons present a risk to aircraft as high as 12,000 feet. The two have never gotten along. Morocco stepped in to claim sovereignty over Western Sahara, a territory nearly its size on its southern border. Now a row over a remote desert truck stop is prompting talk of a return to war. The situation in Western Sahara had been stagnant for 40 years and the International Court of Justice had recognized Morocco’s presence as an occupation that must come to an end, he said. Don’t attempt to cross into Algeria by land. He was forced to apologise. Morocco is also trying to diminish international support for the Sahrawis. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has ruled that EU agreements and treaties with Morocco cannot apply to Western Sahara, dealing a major blow … Nothing from Dakar yet. Van Walsum does not deem this realistic because both the parties in the conflict do not want to make concessions. This includes man-portable air defence systems (MANPADS) and surface-to-air missiles. Morocco and the Polisario Front fought for decades over control of Western Sahara, until a 1991 UN-brokered ceasefire froze the conflict and left Rabat in control of most of the desert area. The Western Sahara dispute pits Morocco, which had annexed the former Spanish-controlled territory, against the Polisario Front, which seeks independence for the territory with the backing of Algeria. Demonstrations supporting Western Sahara’s self-determination are not permitted. Western Sahara is PART of Morocco. • That same year, PotashCorp was the number one buyer of phosphate from occupied Western Sahara, spending U.S. $107 million. 125,000 people still live there to this day. One of Morocco’s biggest diplomatic steps was reintegration into the African Union (AU) in 2017. A referendum has it negative points. Why Morocco does not organize a free and fair referéndum in what is considered as the Africa´s last colony, because the sahrawi people is struggling for decades for a free and independent country … North Africa has the most water scarcity in the world. Morocco weren’t happy, and breached the ceasefire agreement by sending forces into the demilitarized zone to remove them. Not much of a warning – just a recommendation that you don’t fly too low on some airways. Morocco does not accept Western Sahara's independence and the SC continues to seek a consensual solution between Morocco and Polisario. Morocco and the Polisario Front fought for decades over control of Western Sahara, until a 1991 UN-brokered cease-fire froze the conflict and left Rabat in control of most of the desert area. I have explored elements of Morocco’s push to dominate the narrative about Western Sahara as part of my research. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Western Sahara is not a independent country Its a state and part of Morocco. Our team loves to help! Today, U.S. Sen. Jim Inhofe (R-Okla.) spoke on the Senate floor about the struggle in Western Sahara. It is unlikely they would win against the Moroccan army. Rabat (AFP) For three decades, a UN-monitored ceasefire has kept a fragile peace in the disputed Western Sahara. The people of Western Sahara have been forced to live here, struggling to return to a homeland where they can determine their own future. Flora Pidoux receives funding from Fonds de Recherche du Québec - Société et Culture (FRQSC). The conflict pushed most Sahrawis to seek refuge in Algeria, near the town of Tindouf, where they settled in camps organised by the Polisario and partly funded by the UN. 25 NOV 18:18 2020 UNTIL 09 DEC 18:15 2020 ESTIMATED. – OpEd . Morocco has occupied Western Sahara since 1975 in violation of resolutions by the UN Security Council and a decision by the International Court of Justice. Why Does Spain Need Morocco To Free Hostages In Western Sahara? A referendum has it negative points. Support for the Western Sahara as an independent state has ebbed over the years because of the growing importance of Morocco's $110 billion economy – the fifth largest in Africa. It is spread over more than 9,000,000 Square Km (3,630,000 sq miles). For example, religion and Berber culture. Why Morocco really wants back in the African Union. The other airway, UN728 is a direct track from the coast to GCTS/Tenerife which may be used by smaller aircraft or those doing tech stops in the Canary Islands. The territory was formerly known as Spanish Sahara until 1976 when the Spanish colonists withdrew paving the way for annexation by Morocco. @JKP. Morocco seized control of most of Western Sahara in 1976, following the departure of the former colonial power, Spain. After Morocco occupied Western Sahara in 1975, they fired most of the Sahrawis working in the phosphate industry, replacing them with Moroccan settlers. The United States has provided military, economic, and diplomatic support for Morocco’s war effort. http://bit.ly/1OWEAecAre We Nearing The End Of Capitalism? Today the conflict is dominated by unarmed civil campaigns of the Polisario Front and their self-proclaimed SADR state to gain fully recognized independence for Western Sahara. In Morocco the name “Western Sahara” does not exist. IT IS RECOMMENDED TO AVOID OVERFLIGHT AT FLT LEVELS BLW FL200 ON THE FOLLOWING ROUTES: UY601, UN728 AND UT975. Morocco occupied and annexed the northern two-thirds of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara) in 1976, and much of the southern portion of the territory in 1979, following Mauritania's withdrawal. Morocco stepped in to claim sovereignty over Western Sahara, a territory nearly its size on its southern border. Through my discussion with some of the petitioners who come to speak every year to the United Nations Special Decolonization Committee (Fourth Committee) in defense of the Polisario, I realized how lacking these people’s knowledge about the Western Sahara is. Morocco controls one side, while the region’s independence movement (the Polisario) controls the other. To make matters worse, they are suspicious that Morocco are flying drones over their territory – something that has been denied by Morocco. This strategy also expands beyond the continent. It’s in Western Sahara – a disputed territory bordering Morocco to the north and Mauritania to the east – a stone’s throw from the Canary Islands. But an imposed solution would not guarantee lasting stability in the region. • In 2013, OCP made U.S. $7.1 billion in profits. Email us at messages@ops.group. Western Sahara has been occupied by Morocco, just north along the coast, since 1975. From then until 1991, there was a war between the Moroccan Government and the Polisario Front, which fought and campaigned for independence. So far there has been only one warning from the Canarias side – the NOTAM above. The UN set up the Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) in 1991 to halt the conflict by imposing a ceasefire. Worryingly, there is a whole bunch of similar airways in the conflict zone that are controlled by the Dakar FIR which have no warnings yet. The November Mega OpsChat - All the Links... Bamako Airport reopens following military coup, UIA flight 752: Iran military shot down plane after chain of errors. Instead it is often referred as “The Southern Provinces” and there is never a dashed line on the map of Morocco. A former Spanish colony, it was annexed by Morocco in 1975. Since Morocco invaded Western Sahara it has built a 1,700-mile desert barrier keeping Sahrawis out of the resource-rich west Published: 22 Sep 2018 Build a wall across the Sahara? In parallel, the Polisario’s position has been growing uncertain. The FAA were onto it when they immediately carried out a risk assessment and published a notice. The Western Sahara, controlled by the Spanish since 1884 and by Morocco since 1975, is home to the Sahrawi, a collective name for the indigenous peoples living in and around the region. In the parts of the territory controlled by Rabat, Sahrawis face systematic repression by the authorities. By Pambazuka News. In February, the Kingdom of Morocco suspended diplomatic relations with the European Union. Western Sahara. In 2016, following a visit to the Sahrawi refugee camps in Algeria, Ban Ki-Moon declared that Morocco occupied Western Sahara. It left the body’s predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity, in 1984 after the SADR was admitted as a member. (El Pais) Western Sahara's Conflict Traps Refugees in Limbo (June 4, 2008) All things considered, Morocco’s Autonomy Plan – with some modifications, including of its name – appears to be the most viable solution to the conflict. The first argument that these people put forth is that Moroccans are “occupying” Western Sahara and that Morocco has sought to “annex” the territory. Since 2016, King Mohammed VI of Morocco has been personally active in enhancing his country’s economic presence throughout Africa. The conflict originated from an insurgency by the Polisario Front against Spanish colonial forces from 1973 to 1975 and the subsequent Western Sahara War against Morocco between 1975 and 1991. The Polisario questioned Mauritania’s neutrality in 2019, after the country failed to mention the Western Sahara conflict during the 74th session of the General Assembly at the UN on September 24. Over the years, Morocco has maintained a stiff position on its claim to Western Sahara. It is also controlled and administered by Morocco there is no need to claim independence. Read how and why Western Sahara continues to be a colony of neighboring Morocco more than 40 years after Spain, its initial colonial power, left. Morocco has occupied Western Sahara since 1975 in violation of resolutions by the UN Security Council and a decision by the International Court of Justice. The plan received the immediate support of the international community, starting with the UN Security Council. The Sahara Desert is the largest and the hottest desert in the world. But, of course, Western Sahara is a very rich territory with all sorts of resources, renewable and non-renewable. The United States has provided military, economic, and diplomatic support for Morocco’s war effort. Morocco and the Polisario Front fought for decades over control of Western Sahara, until a 1991 UN-brokered ceasefire froze the conflict and left Rabat in control of most of the desert area. Morocco IS WESTERN SAHARA. There has been no fighting in Western Sahara for 24 years, since a United Nations-monitored cease-fire between Morocco and the Polisario Front, but residents say they want independence. The people living in the western Sahara have more in common with Morocco than they did with the Spanish. Morocco’s tactics have centred on diplomacy. While no one has died because of military clashes since 1991, the infighting has continued by other means. CREATED: 25 NOV 18:18 2020. Petitioners Give Morocco’s Proposed Autonomy Plan Mixed Reviews in Hearing. So, legally speaking the issue is crystal-clear to the point that no country in the world recognises the Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. The Saharawi people were expelled from their homes by force, including the use of napalm. “Morocco decided to invade the rest of Western Sahara because of its natural resources, phosphates and fishing. Since its return, Rabat has managed to garner support from 28 member states to push (unsuccessfully, so far) for the SADR’s expulsion. On Wednesday, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) delivered a vindication for the people of Western Sahara.In a long-awaited ruling on a trade deal between the European Union and Morocco, the court reiterated long-established international law that Western Sahara is not part of Morocco, and therefore that trade agreements that include Western Sahara cannot be signed with Morocco. Brahim Ghali, the leader of a pro-independence group in Western Sahara, declared war on Morocco Saturday, breaking a decades-long ceasefire, the New York Times reports.. Why it matters: The declaration could reignite an armed struggle and exacerbate years of animosity between Morocco and its neighbor Algeria, which hosts the independence group, the Polisario Front. The North Atlantic Datalink Mandate – What are the rules? The GCCC/Canarias FIR has issued a new airspace warning this week for an emerging conflict zone in Western Sahara – a remote territory in the Northwest of Africa. Picture: Groundhopping Merseburg, Flickr CC. It has worked hard in recent years to gather international support for its Autonomy Plan, submitted to the UN Secretary-General in 2007. AUF (Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie) apporte un financement en tant que membre adhérent de The Conversation FR. The future of the movement is unsure. The Western Sahara conflict is an ongoing conflict between the Polisario Front and the Kingdom of Morocco. Since Morocco invaded Western Sahara it has built a 1,700-mile desert barrier keeping Sahrawis out of the resource-rich west Published: 22 Sep 2018 Build a wall across the Sahara? The U.S. approach to the Western Sahara dispute for the past thirty years offers many insights into U.S. policy toward Morocco. Droits d'auteur © 2010–2020, The Conversation France (assoc. Morocco wants Western Sahara to remain as an autonomous, self-governing part of its territory, in a fashion similar to the autonomous communities in Spain… It covers the most of North Africa and is as big as the United States. Morocco … The two have never gotten along. The people living in the western Sahara have more in common with Morocco than they did with the Spanish. Western Sahara is thus not a case of frozen conflict – but rather, of a war of attrition. It has relied on Algerian support for decades and, while it is likely that Algiers will continue to support the Sahrawis’ self-determination case, it is unclear how far it is willing to go. Morocco and the Polisario Front fought for decades over control of Western Sahara, until a 1991 UN-brokered ceasefire froze the conflict and left Rabat in control of most of the desert area. The AU struggles to implement its own directives, and Morocco is taking advantage of this. The sky over Western Sahara airspace is split between two FIRs –GCCC/Canarias and GOOO/Dakar. It’s been more than 40 years since Morocco claimed sovereignty over Western Sahara, setting off a conflict that seems no closer to resolution. In March, Morocco threatened to withdraw troops from UN … Years of military affront between Morocco and the Polisario followed, leading to Morocco controlling 80% of the territory until the United Nations (UN) intervened. If you’re operating in the area, pay close attention to the risks involved. Algeria is, after all, facing its own political crisis. The desert starts at the Red sea, across the Mediterranean, and over to the Atlantic Ocean. It wouldn’t be the first time an aircraft has been shot down there either – the Polisario downed two DC-7 airliners with missiles back in 1988. It refers to the territory it controls as its "southern provinces". Western Sahara has been part and parcel of Morocco dating back to the nomadic, semi-nomadic to the most recent sedentarisation of the mixed people of the Sanhaja Amazigh, Arabs and black Africans who unified under the direct rule of the Moroccan authorities, at least since the XIth century under the Amazigh Almoravid Empire followed by that of the Almohads of the post-modern Arab-Muslim period, … Hong Kong revised entry rules for flight crew, Risk assessing Iran ops – the UIA 737 may have been shot down, Operational Summary – Relief flights to the Bahamas, The countries exempt from England’s travel quarantine, Fuel Facts: Let's get to the (freezing) point. 1901), L’expertise universitaire, l’exigence journalistique, AUF (Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie), Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO). Algeria does not want more territory in Western Sahara, they just want (1) to end the Moroccan Occupation of the country and (2) get revenge on Morocco for the Sands War of 1981-1982. This extreme measure was taken in response to a December 2015 ruling by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) to suspend an agricultural trade agreement between the EU and Morocco because it included the Western Sahara (WS) within its territorial scope. Morocco supported the U.S.–led first Gulf War and offered to mediate the Arab–Israeli conflict in an attempt to persuade the United States—which maintains a long-held neutral position on control of the Western Sahara—to endorse Morocco’s claim to the area. First of all Morocco does control western Sahara, or about 80% of it Defacto. The official position of the Kingdom of Morocco since 1963 is that all of Western Sahara is an integral part of the kingdom. A cease-fire and proposed referendum bring promise for peace in the territory, but U.S. leadership is needed to insure its … If the conflict escalates further, this is likely to complicate things. As much as the international community hopes for the termination of the conflict, it must refrain from opting for an easy fix. A former Spanish colony, it was annexed by Morocco in 1975. Fuel Facts: Let’s get to the (freezing) point, The November Mega OpsChat – All the Links…. El Salvador, Barbados and several more countries have withdrawn their support for the SADR in recent years. Because the airways are over an active conflict zone, with a known threat of anti-aircraft fire. Right now it is escalating and shots are being fired. The same phrase also alw… Water scarcity is the lack of water in a region. WESTERN SAHARA PHOSPHATE • PotashCorp purchases phosphate from a Moroccan state-owned company called Office Chérifien des Phosphates (OCP). In 1975 Spain abandoned its colonies in North Africa, with the exception of the territories of Ceuta and Melilla. Since the 1930s, Moroccan Nationalists have envisioned a rebirth of the Moroccan Empires of old starting with Allal al-Fassi’s Greater Morocco dream which played a major role in Istiqlal’s official ideology. Rabat hopes it can push those who oppose to reconsider their options in favour of Western Sahara becoming an autonomous region, and weakening the possibility of changes being made to its Autonomy Plan. It has the potential to combine both parties’ demands. Earlier this year, it rejoined the pan-African body. Western Sahara is effectively divided straight down the middle, literally by a wall. Now the question is why morocco wants to control it with a democratic resolution of the opportunistic crisis created after independence ? Through this strategy, the kingdom has been gathering continental support, primarily from Francophone African states. The United Nations considers Western Sahara a non-decolonized, non-self-governing territory. Information On 31 October 1975, Morocco and Mauritania invaded Western Sahara as Spain (the former colonial power) looked on. Email is always easiest: a good one to use is messages@ops.group. Moreover most Sahrawis do not want to disunite with Morocco. Faced with consistent pressure from Morocco and Mauritania and itself undergoing a period of domestic uncertainty, Spain agreed to the partition of Western Sahara between the two countries despite a World Court ruling that Morocco’s and Mauritania’s legal claims to the Spanish Sahara were tenuous and did not negate the right to self-determination by the Sahrawis. Morocco’s border with Algeria is closed. In the top right corner of this building in the city of Casablanca there is a picture of current King Mohammed VI. At first glance, it would seem like nothing has changed since 1991. » Subscribe to NowThis World: http://go.nowth.is/World_SubscribeSubscribe to Sourcefed! The Saharawi people were expelled from their homes by force, including the use of napalm. So why do they want to fight? Morocco controls one side, while the region’s independence movement (the Polisario) controls the other. On October 21, groups of Polisario Front’s supporters blocked the highway at Guergarat, in the extreme southwest of the Western Sahara. On 31 October 1975, Morocco and Mauritania invaded Western Sahara as Spain (the former colonial power) looked on. Western Sahara is a sparsely-populated area of mostly desert situated on the northwest coast of Africa. Western Sahara is effectively divided straight down the middle, literally by a wall. While Morocco works to bring stability and growth, Algeria continues to oppose Morocco’s sovereignty over Western Sahara and uses the Polisario to do this. If you include this disputed region, ... We want to hear what you think about this article. This sparked one of the most important diplomatic crises involving a UN Secretary-General in the organisation’s history. Moreover most Sahrawis do not want to disunite with Morocco. The occupation sparked a guerrilla war between Morocco and Algeria's Polisario Front that ended in 1991 after the United Nations negotiated a ceasefire and deployed a peacekeeping force. Why did the court discard the various accords Morocco had signed with the English, the French, the Russians, the Portuguese, the Dutch, etc. For example, religion and Berber culture. The Moroccan government refers to Western Sahara only as "Moroccan Sahara", the "Saharan provinces" , or the "Southern Provinces". Want to talk to us? The old guard is likely to soon give way to younger leaders, who might prefer to take up arms for their cause. The Western Sahara dispute was the reason why Morocco left the AU's predecessor, the Organization of African Unity (OAU), in the first place. But it cannot be implemented as presented. Morocco IS WESTERN SAHARA. Water Scarcity in Morocco (Western Sahara) What is Water Scarcity? Because it is the diplomatic and democratic way to do things not by force. 33 years ago, Morocco quit the AU's predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity because of the Western Sahara. The Polisario immediately declared war on Morocco, and clashes began straight away. Université de Montréal apporte des fonds en tant que membre fondateur de The Conversation CA-FR. Western Sahara is a sparsely-populated area of mostly desert situated on the northwest coast of Africa. Western Sahara is PART of Morocco. Banks, telephone and insurance companies have expanded their services beyond the national borders. Algeria support the Polisario, so the conflict has potential to grow beyond borders. @JKP. October 30, 2011 August 2, 2017 Pambazuka News 0 Comments. The king of Morocco's recent declaration that his country wants to return to the African Union after a 32-year absence appears to be a political maneuver to gain ground in the Western Sahara dispute. Although the conflict has been escalating for a couple of weeks, it is the first ‘official’ warning: B7433/20 – OPERATORS ARE REQ TO EXERCISE PARTICULAR CAUTION DURING FLT OPERATIONS IN WESTERN SAHARA AS PART OF FIR CANARIAS. What’s really important is exactly what is missing: why. The plan does not yet offer sufficient guarantees in terms of political rights and representation to the Polisario for it to agree. In 1984, Morocco left the AU after the body decided to recognize the independence of Western Sahara, also known as Sahrawi Arab Democratic … The Polisario, a politico-military organisation first created to fight off Spain, opposed Morocco’s claim. The AU had recognised the Western Sahara – or Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) as an independent nation back in 1982 – and Morocco wasn't happy about it. Écrivez un article et rejoignez une communauté de plus de 117 700 universitaires et chercheurs de 3 797 institutions. Question? The Moroccan government invaded and has occupied the Western Sahara since Spain withdrew in 1975. The Polisario themselves want the fight to escalate which should be a warning sign for those in airplanes above them. It also committed to organise a referendum of self-determination for the Sahrawis. And impatience is growing within the Polisario, whose confidence in the UN peace process seems to be at its lowest. Ending the Algerian-backed separatists’ fight for control of the Western Sahara is one of Morocco’s top priorities. The ceasefire has held, but there still has not been a referendum. Key Points. The UN plan… This reintegration has happened despite the fact that Morocco’s sovereignty claim over Western Sahara is contrary to the AU’s protocols, which support the principle of territorial integrity. http://bit.ly/1OWEAecAre We Nearing The End Of Capitalism? Two of them (UY601 and UT975) run the length of the region in a south westerly direction – likely to be used by aircraft transiting some routes between Europe and South America. The Polisario want independence and were at war with the Moroccan Government for a very long time, until a fragile ceasefire agreement in 1991. ... morocco want the sahrawi from tindouf to return home and have a decent life, but that does nt benefit to … Yet, things have been slowly and discreetly evolving in recent years at Morocco’s behest. Sooner or later the people of Western Sahara shall overcome one day. The Polisario made headlines last week when they declared war on Morocco. Today, U.S. Sen. Jim Inhofe (R-Okla.) spoke on the Senate floor about the struggle in Western Sahara. By Malainin Lakhal. This would prevent the creation of an independent Western Sahara by turning it into an autonomous region within the Kingdom of Morocco. As diplomacy scholar R. Joseph Huddleston has written: The front lines have moved from the arid desert to the realm of media and diplomacy. Morocco Western Sahara FILE - In this May 20 2008 file photo, pro-independence Polisario Front rebel soldiers prepare tea in the Western Sahara region of Tifariti. At the UN, Morocco has used its institutional involvement, particularly by threatening to withdraw its peacekeepers deployed around the world, to dominate and direct discussions about Western Sahara. Why Morocco really wants back in the African Union The king of Morocco's recent declaration that his country wants to return to the African Union after a 32-year absence appears to be a political maneuver to gain ground in the Western Sahara dispute. 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