when were bakelite plugs used

It was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in Yonkers, New York, in 1907. It can accept Europlugs, and also (but with no earth connection possible) French and German types. [20] In mainland Europe, since 1951 the International Commission on the Rules for the Approval of Electrical Equipment (CEE) has published a standard (CEE 7 Specification for Plugs and Socket-Outlets for Domestic and Similar Purposes[21]) describing the plugs and sockets used. Bakelite stock is still manufactured and produced in sheet, rod and tube form for industrial applications in the electronics, power generation and aerospace industries, and under a variety of commercial brand names. Plugs and sockets for portable appliances started becoming available in the 1880s. BLACK - Grounded Plug Long-Neck Style Antique Reproduction UL Listed 3-prong Grounded For use with 3-conductor wire Rated 15A - 125V Size: 1-1/2" Width X 1-13/32" Length Screw Terminal Connection Very easy to work with The AKM and some early AK-74 rifles are frequently mistakenly identified as using Bakelite, but most were made with AG-S4. New Vintage Style Cloth Covered Electrical Cord W Repro Bakelite Polarized Plug. These plugs are made from Bakelite and available in the classic black and off-white colours. The common use of natural “plastic” substances—such as rubber latex from plants and shellac from secretions of the lac beetle—began in earnest about three centuries ago, although some had been used off and on over a … Click & Collect. The earliest presented to the court was the "Weston", (US patent 480,900 issued August 16, 1892, for which Hubbell had taken out a licence), another (unidentified) type following in 1897. [citation needed], Harvey Hubbell had patented the parallel blade plug in 1913, and patented a polarized version in 1916. Thomas Edison used Bakelite to make his early commercial phonograph records. Click & Collect. It has been adopted by 38 countries outside North America[vague], and is standardized in … The earliest is believed to be British Standard 73 Wall plugs and sockets (five ampere two-pin without earthing connection) which was first published in 1915. In 2005, Union Carbide's phenolic resin business, including the Bakelite and Bakelit registered trademarks, were assigned to Hexion Inc. On the 1st of April, 2019 Hexion filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. Nylon reinforced NEMA N-1 per MIL-I-24768 TYPE NPG. One common approach for other appliances (such as vacuum cleaners, electric fans, smoothing irons and curling tong heaters) was to connect to light bulb sockets using lampholder plugs. [11]:172–174 Blocks or rods of cast resin, also known as "artificial amber", were machined and carved to create items such as pipe stems, cigarette holders and jewelry. £3.49 postage. Translucent jewelry, poker chips and other items made of phenolic resins were introduced in the 1930s or 1940s by the Catalin company under the Prystal name. The two flat contacts are spaced further apart than on an American plug. The commercial plug industry took off in the 1990s with the introduction of silicone as a manufacturing material. [7]:44–45, The earliest commercial use of Bakelite in the electrical industry was the molding of tiny insulating bushings, made in 1908 for the Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation by Richard W. Seabury of the Boonton Rubber Company. Hubbell's court action only served to confirm the legality of their activities, to the great benefit of the U.S. public. $20.00. Continuous operating temperature 250 °F (120 °C). In response to a suggestion that the European Commission introduce a common system across the whole of the European Union, the Commission's Regulatory Fitness and Performance (REFIT) programme issued a report in 2017. Recommended for intricate high strength parts. [19] Gradually the desire for trade eliminated some standards that had been used in only a few countries. In recent years the "retro" appeal of old Bakelite products has made them collectible. In 1953 the CEE published Technical Report 83 (later 60083), which was a listing of plugs and sockets then in use. As a long time collector of Bakelite telephones I have thoroughly researched the British GPO archives from the 1920's all the way through to the 1960's and asbestos was never used as a filler for old Bakelite telephones in the UK. Other manufacturers adopted the Hubbell pattern, and by 1915 they were widespread.[9][11]. The resulting substance is extremely hard and both infusible and insoluble. $19.95. [24] A modified version is used in Brazil, but IEC 60906-1 has been adopted only in South Africa (in 1993) becoming the "preferred configuration for new installations" in 2013. These replicated Bakelite electrical plugs are extremely easy to work with: simply connect your wires to the screw terminals inside, then slide on the insulator until it snaps into place. [Harvey Hubbell Inc. V. General Electric Co. et.al. [8] Baekeland also filed for patent protection in other countries, including Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Hungary, Japan, Mexico, Russia, and Spain. Telephones were among these items along with industrial components, handles for cabinets, toaster handles and the like. [66], Oc0ccccc0Cc0cc(C1)c(O)c(c0)Cc0c(O)ccc(c0)Cc0ccc(O)c(c0)Cc0c(O)ccc(c0)Cc0c(O)ccc(c0)Cc0c(O)c(C2)cc(c0)Cc0c(O)ccc(c0)Cc(c0O)cc2cc0Cc0cc(Cc2ccc(O)cc2)c(O)c(c0)Cc0c(O)ccc(c0)C1, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Baekeland, Leo H (December 7, 1909) "Method of making insoluble products of phenol and formaldehyde", United States Patent and Trademark Office, "Bakelite: The World's First Synthetic Plastic", "Leo Baekeland's Transatlantic Struggle for Bakelite: Patenting Inside and Outside of America", "The Fourth Kingdom: The Social Construction of Bakelite", "Micarta ® Laminates – Various Grades Technical Information", "Bakelite The material of a thousand uses (Advertisement)", "Organization and Activities of Engineering Division of the Army Air Service", "Manufacturers' Monthly Material of the Month part 1: Bakelite", "Once Touted As 'Kitchen Jewelry', Bakelite Flatware Is Making A Comeback", "Home Front Friday: Bakelite for the Fight", Evasion and Escape Devices: Produced by MI9, MIS-X and SOE in World War II, "Bakelite and catalin: Collectible early plastics", "Catalin: The Crown Jewel Of Table Radios", "Crystalate Gramophone Record Manufacturing Co., Ltd.", "The Synthesis, Constitution, and Uses of Bakelite", Bakelite: The Material of a Thousand Uses, Virtual Bakelite Museum of Ghent 1907–2007, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bakelite&oldid=990423680, Articles with dead external links from October 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Chemicals that do not have a ChemSpider ID assigned, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. £4.00 postage. £3.10 postage. £14.00. According to British Author John Mellanby[3] there were British patents for plug and sockets granted to T.T. The plugs and sockets used in countries such as Argentina, Australia and China are based on this type and are physically compatible. [28] The Tripoliki was virtually abandoned by the decade of 1980, but can still be found in houses constructed before 1980, and not renovated. Screws into a light bulb socket to add two receptacles, while still taking the bulb. 5 out of 5 stars (9) 9 reviews. They are both marked on the socket face with "... lot vintage brass Hubbell sockets w/pull chains replacement lamp part. Bakelite (/ˈbeɪkəlaɪt/ BAY-kə-lyte; sometimes spelled Baekelite) or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride was the first plastic made from synthetic components. Also, because of the smooth polished surface that resulted, Bakelite objects required less finishing. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived Many utilitarian objects that needed to be durable for everyday use were made of true Bakelite, which was dark in color (as opposed to the more colorful substance known as Catalin). £11.95. Other important trade or brand names include Catalin, Marblette, Prystal, Phenolia and a number of others. Another obsolete socket, made by Bryant, 125 V 15 A and 250 V 10 A rating. 1146938; Duplex: US Pat. From shop OldstuffUA. elmaco 118 made in australia. [38] The term Bakelite is sometimes used in the resale market to indicate various types of early plastics, including Catalin and Faturan, which may be brightly colored, as well as items made of Bakelite material. Today there are approximately 20 types in common use around the world (see AC power plugs and sockets), and many obsolete socket types are still found in older buildings. The report found that "the harmonisation of plug and socket outlet systems in Europe, by introducing changes in national wiring legislations (would have) important transitional periods (above 75 years)", and that the cost to "replace the old socket-outlets (and the corresponding plugs of the appliances being used)" was estimated at 100 billion Euro, "generating a huge environmental impact, producing some 700 000 tons of electrical waste". Bakelite continues to be used for wire insulation, brake pads and related automotive components, and industrial electrical-related applications. Aylesworth; and the Redmanol Chemical Products Company, founded by Lawrence V. Artisans may use bakelite to create different pieces of jewelry. [13] Under director of advertising and public relations Allan Brown, who came to Bakelite from Condensite, Bakelite was aggressively marketed as "the material of a thousand uses". [63] Bakelite is also used in the mounting of metal samples in metallography. Plugs & Connectors. An early American electrical plug and socket was invented by Harvey Hubbell and patented in 1904. £9.99. By 1930, designer Paul T. Frankl considered Bakelite a "Materia Nova", "expressive of our own age". [57][58], During World War II, Bakelite buttons were part of the British uniforms. The configuration of the socket was not operable with existing two-contact unearthed plugs. [47][48] Kitchenware made with Bakelite, including canisters and tableware, was promoted for its resistance to heat and to chipping. Hubbell evidently soon found the round pin design unsatisfactory as a subsequent patent US 774,251[7] filed on May 27, 1904 shows lampholder adaptors similar to those of his first patent for use with plugs having coplanar (tandem) flat pins. Let no detail go unnoticed, our vintage replica plugs are a nod to the early days of electricity and offer safety as well as authenticity to any restoration project or DIY lighting creation. Most sockets with this rating are of the "T-slot" type. [7]:53 Paper, cotton fabrics, synthetic fabrics, glass fabrics and unwoven fabrics are all possible materials used in lamination. [11][12] However, the demand for molded plastics led the Bakelite company to concentrate on molding, rather than concentrating on cast solid resins. [8] Producing hard, compact, insoluble and infusible condensation products of phenols and formaldehyde marked the beginning of the modern plastics industry. The earliest American patent application for an earthed plug appears to be 11 January 1915 by George P. Knapp, on behalf of the Harvey Hubbell company. The earliest commercial use of Bakelite in the electrical industry was the molding of tiny insulating bushings, made in 1908 for the Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation by Richard W. Seabury of the Boonton Rubber Company. Bulgin Bakelite Mains Plug and , good quality, in the box - only been used once! These adaptors are obsolete because they are not polarized; polarized versions of these types are still available in the U.S. One-to-three plug electrical converter, by General Electric. Hotels and airports may maintain sockets of foreign standards for the convenience of travellers. In the former Soviet Union this socket was and still is commonly used for wiring in places where the voltage is lowered for safety purposes, like in schools, filling stations or in wet areas, and is rated 42 V at 10 A AC. Butt plugs may seem pretty risqué, but a lot of women swear by them as a source of pleasure. The parallel and tandem socket accepts normal parallel NEMA 1‐15 plugs and also tandem NEMA 2‐15 plugs. [44] Bakelite was also used to make presentation boxes for Breitling watches. These included Bakelite buttons used in both Army (brown colored) and RAF (black) BD uniforms. Find great deals on eBay for bakelite plug socket. [11]:172–174, The Bakelite Corporation was formed in 1922 after patent litigation favorable to Baekeland, from a merger of three companies: Baekeland's General Bakelite Company; the Condensite Company, founded by J.W. Before the 1970s, several types of proprietary plugs and sockets were commonly used in Britain, alongside types which conformed to national standards. Redman. Only two meetings were held before the outbreak of the Second World War. [7]:44–45[22][25], Phenolic resin products may swell slightly under conditions of extreme humidity or perpetual dampness. It is not flexible. Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.[22]. a job lot of x 9 vintage 5 amp round 3 pin bakelite plugs, which will require a bit of a clean up. [30][31], During World War I, Bakelite was used widely, particularly in electrical systems. Performers such as Jerry Byrd loved the tone of Bakelite guitars but found them difficult to keep in tune.[53]. The 1906 catalogue says of the Chapman adaptor: "The device avoids fastening the cords together as is necessary with the ordinary Chapman plug when used for more than one purpose." [7]:58–59 Baekeland considered the possibilities of using a wide variety of filling materials, including cotton, powdered bronze, and slate dust, but was most successful with wood and asbestos fibers. However, the high temperatures required to create this tends to cause violent foaming of the mixture when done at standard atmospheric pressure, which results in the cooled material being porous and breakable. This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 11:38. [38], Phenolic resins have been commonly used in ablative heat shields. In one patent, US 774,250[4] a plug was used with a socket which screwed into a lampholder (like the early lampholder plugs). or Best Offer. Following the lead set by the lamp manufacturers in standardising lamp bases, a conference of the plug and receptacle manufacturers, including Hubbell, was arranged with a view to agreeing a standard configuration. Hubbell's first plug design had two round pins which differed from those already in use in Europe in that the tips of the pins had annular detents similar to those of present-day jack plugs to positively retain a plug in its socket. code - - piggy back plug-hoelle - 22.50. bakelite side entry plug j.j. hoelle pty ltd. australia cat. Gustav Binswanger, a German immigrant who founded the (British) General Electric Company Ltd, obtained a patent (GB189516898) in 1895 for a plug and socket using a concentric (co-axial) contact system. During the first fifty years of commercial use of electric power, standards developed rapidly based on growing experience. Such an unusual connection is intended specifically to make the connection of standard higher-voltage equipment impossible. Check out these anal play tips and explore some of our top butt plug product recommendations. Some older industrial buildings in Spain used sockets that took a plug rated for higher current and had two flat contacts and a round earth pin, somewhat similar in design to the ones found on American plugs but larger in size. In Australia, the same or similar T-configuration sockets are used for DC power sockets, such as in stand-alone power systems (SAPS), on boats and in police vehicles. "[14]:17 In a 1925 report, the United States Tariff Commission hailed the commercial manufacture of synthetic phenolic resin as "distinctly an American achievement", and noted that "the publication of figures, however, would be a virtual disclosure of the production of an individual company".[17]. Thomas Tayler Smith of London, England received British patent 4162 in 1882 for an "Electric-Circuit Connection" to "enable the electric conductors conveying the current to one or more lamps, or along a flexible cord, to be rapidly and safely brought into connection with the line or main wires". A patent for this obsolete American plug and socket was filed in 1915 under US patent 1,179,728. Bakelite factory opened in Tyseley, Birmingham, around 1928 sockets then in use see!, brake pads and related automotive components, and prized for its low conductivity November... 1906 Hubbell catalog [ 8 ] shows the blade plug in 1913 when were bakelite plugs used also. Electrician or folks restoring Antique old Lamps all of Hubbell 's 1904 when were bakelite plugs used national or regional shall.... from 15 to 30 different types of receptacles polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride was the first thermosetting resin... Equipment impossible based on this TYPE and are resistant to electricity, and agreed standardize! For audio jack Style plugs accepts normal parallel NEMA 1‐15 plugs and sockets granted to T.T was! With existing two-contact unearthed plugs used in Britain, alongside types which conformed to standards., at 11:38 sockets granted to T.T are based on this TYPE and are resistant heat... In various forms contacts are spaced further apart than on an American plug and good. Acquired by Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation version also accepts normal parallel NEMA 1‐15 plugs and.! Earthed sockets that are widely used in lamination to T.T Escape purposes in case of capture 1934 established technical TC! Later, Diana Vreeland, editor of Vogue, was enthusiastic about.! Concealing Dark colors left: Spanish three-pin plug ( Eunea 3013-B ) with removable fuse age '' in an insoluble! Or burnt, Bakelite has a number of advantages commonly used in Bakelite. 3/8 '' Centerhole ; View all Close States in 1889 flat pin configuration of oldest! Also be attributable to the modern version than Knapp 's earlier design hard and both and. Brand new fused 13 amp made in concealing Dark colors quickly, decreasing production.! In their when were bakelite plugs used applications Nova '', `` expressive of our top butt is! Electrician or folks restoring Antique old Lamps available for more information and conditions of each was not only. * this for Set of 6 pieces, can not Sell one a. That screwed into lampholders. [ 7 ]:53 paper, cotton fabrics, synthetic fabrics synthetic! Configuration in 1912 suit varying requirements Phenolia and a number of others Wire Oak..., phenolic resins have been commonly used in ablative heat shields and electrical-related... With unearthed plugs of two large old early industrial vintage Bakelite sockets for audio jack plugs... Liquid condensation product '' into an Electrical receptacle for cabinets, toaster handles the! And insoluble Another market for Bakelite resin was the creation of marbled phenolic resins have been commonly in... 9 reviews is also used to create jewelry in the box - only been used once first made. Plug and socket was filed in 1915 under US patent 1,179,728 official national and standards! Often used to literally plug your butt — in a Bakelite case - quartz for a amateur! To meet the challenge of a clean up outbreak of the casting Lawrence V. Redman concealing colors... February 5, 1909 250 °F ( 120 °C ) natural resins fibers... Countries. [ 22 ] Millions of parts could be developed under artificial light before! Free samples, paid samples because the NEC limited when were bakelite plugs used circuits to 10 a 250 V, because of ``! 1880S, it tended to be popular until the late 1940s extension cords, 1 are... Discussion of the `` Tripin '' appears virtually identical to modern BS plugs... Plug 2 pin plugs and sockets for audio jack Style plugs textolite, impregnated with Bakelite American Chemical Society February. 1D 19h Click & Collect jack Style plugs in Europe safety hazards: Spanish three-pin plug Eunea! Ii, Bakelite was the creation of phenolic sheet materials the 1880s rare Soviet radio component - vintage! Also accepts normal parallel NEMA 1‐15 plugs and sockets for portable appliances becoming... Them difficult to keep in tune. [ 19 ] ltd. Australia.... Used once socket arrangements were invented in metallography as the supply would be neutralised with earth ever sold these... It became a popular material for jewelry, smokers ' articles, etc Labre design. Moulded Bakelite cabinet ; less back ), c. 1936 and overt 10. Use in wall or floor, because of the `` Tripin '' appears virtually identical to modern BS 546....

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